A new study demonstrates that patterns of weight gain are not simply about calories. Certainly calorie intake does matter. But the method in which you consume those calories also makes a difference.
In short, the overall metabolic activity of organs does operate in a time dependent manner. We've had examples of this for years. It's long been understood that melatonin production increases as the sun goes down and serotonin production increases as the sun comes up. We've also understood that long term night workers suffer from more chronic disease and die earlier than people that follow a traditional schedule (work during the day and sleep at night). Cortisol rhythms have been understood for many years in that cortisol peaks in the morning and depresses as you approach evening. Certainly there are many other timing patterns of physiology of which we are unaware.
While the study doesn't give specifics on the best hours to eat food, it is probably safe to say that since we are wired to work during the day and sleep at night, we should probably be eating regularly throughout the day rather than gorging at night.